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WMHPG news, information and resources 17 January 2020

We do not accept responsibility for the availability, reliability or content of these news items and do not necessarily endorse the views expressed within them.

Imperial College London’s School of Public Health has launched a new set of free online courses providing an introduction to public health practice. The Foundations of Public Health Practice MOOCs (Massive Online Open Course) provide more than 50 hours of content introducing core public health topics such as health improvement, communicable disease control and behaviour change - all delivered by practising public health professionals. Designed to develop the skills and values needed to become an effective public health professional the courses draw on first-hand experiences from experts from across the School of Public Health. The courses are delivered through Coursera’s online learning platform and use a blend of videos, interactive activities, quizzes and interviews with leading public health practitioners connecting theory to practice. For more details please see: http://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/194332/school-publiyc-health-launches-latest-online/

Sustainable development goals

FPH President Maggie Rae and Martin McKee on the Brexit Withdrawal Bill: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fizf7AvuCLs&feature=youtu.be “The first in the Faculty of Public Health's (FPH) film series on Brexit and Public Health. FPH President, Professor Maggie Rae interviews Professor Martin McKee CBE of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine on the public health impacts of Brexit.”

Seasonal Effects on Stalling Mortality in England: http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/resources-reports/seasonal-effects-on-stalling-mortality-in-england “To the extent that mortality in the winter months of 2011-2018/9 was increased by periodic flu epidemics and cold spells, this analysis shows that if the change in mortality in winter was no greater than in summer this would account for one eight of the slowdown in male mortality and one sixth of the slowdown in female mortality. In other words, seven eighth and five sixth of the annual slowdown for males and females, respectively, was due to factors other than the effects of greater winter-associated mortality in 2011-18/9 compared to 2001-10.”

Early childhood deprivation is associated with alterations in adult brain structure despite subsequent environmental enrichment: https://www.pnas.org/content/117/1/641 “We studied impact on adult brain structure of a particularly severe but time-limited form of institutional deprivation in early life experienced by children who were subsequently adopted into nurturing families… Deprivation-related alterations in total brain volume were associated with lower intelligence quotient and more attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms; alterations in temporal volume seemed compensatory, as they were associated with fewer attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. We provide evidence that early childhood deprivation is related to alterations in adult brain structure, despite environmental enrichment in intervening years.”

Health Equity in England: The Marmot Review 10 Years On: http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/about-us/the-institute-of-health-equity/our-current-work/collaborating-with-the-health-foundation- “In the ten years since the publication of The Marmot Review, health inequalities appear to be widening, and life expectancy increases have stalled.  We urgently need to reprioritise and take action on health inequalities. This is why UCL Institute of Health Equity is working with The Health Foundation to examine progress in addressing health inequalities in England and to propose recommendations for future action.”

World Economic Forum - Global Risks Report 2020: https://www.oliverwyman.com/our-expertise/insights/2020/jan/globalrisks2020.html “The Global Risks Report forecasts a year of increased domestic and international divisions with the added risk of economic slowdown. 78% of survey respondents said they expect “economic confrontations” and “domestic political polarization” to rise in 2020. Global experts also see the risk of extreme heatwaves and destruction of natural ecosystems increasing, as well as a rise in cyber-attacks targeting operations and infrastructure and data/money theft.”

How household debt influences inequality: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/how-household-debt-influences-inequality/ “James Wood writes that private debt contributes to increasing inequality, as highly indebted households provide a revenue stream to the financial sector, where profits are distributed to financial employees, managers, and executives, as well as to the most affluent households which hold the concentrated ownership of financial assets.”

Raising the national living wage is right but it won't stop poverty: https://inews.co.uk/opinion/raising-the-national-living-wage-is-right-but-it-wont-stop-poverty-1352704 “Increasing the national living wage well above inflation is the right thing to do. It cannot be right that four million workers and their families are locked into poverty due to high housing costs, work that isn’t paying, and inadequate social security. Raising wages after a tough decade could make a big difference to many - but it won’t turn the tide on rising poverty unless there is effective action to bring down costs and make social security an anchor in hard times.”

NEF Review Of The Year 2019: https://neweconomics.org/2020/01/nef-review-of-the-year-2019?mc_cid=7aa1829e53&mc_eid=a15a43d447 “We are excited to present NEF’s Review of the Year – an overview of everything we got up to in 2019. In it you can read about our three missions to transform our failing economy: a new social settlement, a Green New Deal, and democratising the economy. In the meantime, here are some highlights we are particularly proud of”

Healthy planning & environment

FPH Fracking Statement: https://www.fph.org.uk/news-events/fph-news/fph-fracking-statement/ “The Faculty of Public Health endorses the findings of an updated 2016 report from Medact that examines the evidence set out in over 350 academic papers published since the original Medact report in 2015, looking at the impact of fracking on local communities, the natural environment and climate change. The Faculty supports the call for an ongoing and permanent moratorium on fracking due to the possible serious public health risks involved..”

UN draft plan sets 2030 target to avert Earth's sixth mass extinction: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/13/un-draft-plan-sets-2030-target-to-avert-earths-sixth-mass-extinction-aoe “Almost a third of the world’s oceans and land should be protected by the end of the decade to stop and reverse biodiversity decline that risks the survival of humanity, according to a draft Paris-style UN agreement on nature. To combat what scientists have described as the sixth mass extinction event in Earth’s history, the proposal sets a 2030 deadline for the conservation and restoration of ecosystems and wildlife that perform crucial services for humans.”

Free Webinar 31 January - Environmental investment for health outcomes: what does the evidence say? https://beyondgreenspace.net/2020/01/14/sweep-project-webinars-environmental-investment-for-health-outcomes-what-does-the-evidence-say/ “Dr Becca Lovell, Lecturer in Biodiversity and Healthy Policy at the European Centre for Environment and Human Health, will be presenting our second webinar. Join us for this webinar to learn more about the key research on links between the natural environment and human health and wellbeing, their benefits and how this knowledge is informing investment in interventions such as green prescribing and urban greenspace provision. Becca will give an overview of the evidence, discuss information gaps, and talk about the implications of the evidence for different sectors such as urban planning and public health. The talk will be followed by a Q&A session.

What’s the Damage: Why HS2 will cost nature too much: https://www.wildlifetrusts.org/sites/default/files/2020-01/What%27s%20the%20damage%20-%20Full%20Report%20digital2_0.pdf “Given this and that HS2 is a major infrastructure development, The Wildlife Trusts have commissioned the first comprehensive assessment of the environmental damage that HS2 will cause, assessing the broad range of impacts across all phases of development focusing on protected sites, landscape initiatives and a number of important habitats and species… The report reveals that the construction of HS2 will destroy and fragment large swathes of natural habitat and important protected wildlife sites, resulting in the loss of irreplaceable habitats, the increased fragmentation of remaining habitats, and the local extinction of endangered species.”

Geographers find tipping point in deforestation: https://phys.org/news/2020-01-geographers-deforestation.amp “Geography professor Tomasz Stepinski used high-resolution satellite images from the European Space Agency to study landscapes in 9-kilometer-wide blocks across every inch of the planet between 1992 and 2015. He found that deforestation occurs comparatively slowly in these blocks until about half of the forest is gone. Then the remaining forest disappears very quickly.”

Capturing Increases In Land Value: https://housingevidence.ac.uk/publications/capturing-increases-in-land-value/ “The paper looks at the arguments for capturing increases in land values especially increases following planning permission, reviews the evidence of the outcome of policies and considers what more might be done including in the light of experience overseas and the differing experiences within the nations of the UK.”

Housing

Homelessness Prevention In The UK – Emerging Impact Of Cache Analysis: https://housingevidence.ac.uk/homelessness-prevention-in-the-uk-emerging-impact-of-cache-analysis/ “In July 2019 Prof Suzanne Fitzpatrick, Dr Peter Mackie, and Dr Jenny Wood published a CaCHE policy briefing on homelessness prevention in the UK. Combining original research conducted for CaCHE with work undertaken as part of the long-running Homelessness Monitor series, the briefing analysed the innovation and policy mobility on homelessness prevention that has taken root in the post-devolution period. It also presented a homelessness prevention ‘typology’ that has quickly gained traction with a range of organisations and policymakers. This blog reflects on the existing and potential impact of this framework for understanding homelessness prevention.”

Finland ends homelessness and provides shelter for all in need: https://scoop.me/housing-first-finland-homelessness/ “In Finland, the number of homeless people has fallen sharply. The reason: The country applies the “Housing First” concept. Those affected by homelessness receive a small apartment and counselling – without any preconditions. 4 out of 5 people affected thus make their way back into a stable life. And: All this is cheaper than accepting homelessness.”

About the Helping People Living in Cold Homes programme: https://www.e-lfh.org.uk/programmes/cold-homes/ “This e-learning module has been developed to help people whose health is affected by living in a cold home. It supports health and social care professionals to put NICE Guidance NG6 ‘Excess winter deaths and illness and the health risks associated with cold homes’ into practice.  It empowers professionals to direct people in cold homes to services that can help them overcome the problem. This can be via each local council’s environmental health team or through other local services that provide support to repair or replace heating systems, install insulation, switch to a cheaper energy deal or better manage temperature and ventilation at home.”

Why Is Housing So Expensive? https://housingevidence.ac.uk/news/why-is-housing-so-expensive/ “This 2-minute animation summarises the main causes of housing unaffordability in England as well as some possible solutions. It focuses mostly, though not exclusively, on the plight of private renters – the group most impacted by housing unaffordability. The facts and evidence behind the animation, as well as further readings, can be found in this fact sheet.”

Climate change & sustainability

Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2015GL063514 One finding - the greenhouse effect from burning coal outweighs the heat produced by burning the coal by a factor of 100,000. “Thermal emissions from fossil fuel combustion are not negligible, especially at local or regional scales [G. J. Zhang et al., 2013; X. Zhang et al., 2013]; however, CO2 radiative forcing from fossil fuel combustion greatly exceeds thermal emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Considered globally, direct thermal forcing from fossil fuel combustion is about 1.71% the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere from past fossil fuel combustion. When a new power plant comes on line, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the thermal emissions from the power plant in less than half a year (and about 3 months for coal plants). Due to the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, CO2 radiative forcing greatly overwhelms direct thermal forcing on longer time scales. Ultimately, the cumulative radiative forcing from the CO2 exceeds the direct thermal forcing by a factor of ~100,000.”

Global warming to increase violent crime in the United States: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ab6b37 “Our results indicate that the United States should expect an additional 3.2 [2.1–4.5] or 2.3 [1.5–3.2] million violent crimes between 2020 and 2099, depending on greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We also reveal critical dependencies of these violent crime projections on various global warming targets, such as those associated with the Paris Agreement (1.5˚C and 2˚C). These results emphasize the often-overlooked socially-mediated impacts of climate change on human health, with an estimated economic cost of $5 billion annually.”

Explainer: How ‘Atlantification’ is making the Arctic Ocean saltier and warmer: https://www.carbonbrief.org/explainer-how-atlantification-is-making-the-arctic-ocean-saltier-and-warmer “In the seas above Scandinavia, there is a point where the Arctic Ocean collides with the warmer, saltier waters of the Atlantic.

This Arctic region – known as the Barents Sea – has undergone rapid change in recent decades. Air temperatures here have risen at more than four times the global average rate since the start of the industrial era. There is growing evidence, too, to suggest that the unique structure of the Arctic Ocean could be shifting in this region. Scientists have uncovered “hotspots” where some parts of the Barents Sea are starting to more closely resemble the Atlantic. They call this phenomenon “Atlantification”.”

Worst marine heatwave on record killed one million seabirds in North Pacific Ocean: https://theconversation.com/worst-marine-heatwave-on-record-killed-one-million-seabirds-in-north-pacific-ocean-129842 “Between the summer of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a marine heatwave swept the northern Pacific Ocean that was hotter and lasted longer than any since records began in 1870. Known as “the blob”, the heatwave caused sea surface temperatures along the Pacific coast of North America to rise by 1-2°C. That may sound trivial, but it was enough to cause massive disruption in the marine ecosystem. The fish that common guillemots normally eat, such as herring, sardine and anchovy, either died or moved into cooler waters elsewhere, leaving the guillemots with little to eat. As a result, many birds starved.”

Media reaction: Australia’s bushfires and climate change: https://www.carbonbrief.org/media-reaction-australias-bushfires-and-climate-change “Australia is currently experiencing one of its worst bushfire seasons, with swathes of the southern and eastern coastal regions having been ablaze for weeks. As the fires have spread, there has been extensive media coverage both nationally and internationally documenting – and debating – their impacts.”

Australian bushfire smoke drifts to South America – WMO: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-australia-bushfires-wmo/australian-bushfire-smoke-drifts-to-south-america-wmo-idUSKBN1Z6271 “Smoke from wildfires in Australia has drifted across the Pacific and affected cities in South America, and may have reached the Antarctic, the U.N. World Meteorological Organization said on Tuesday. Smoke from the fires had already turned skies bright orange over Auckland in New Zealand.”

West Midlands Combined Authority - Roadmap to 2030: https://www.sustainabilitywestmidlands.org.uk/roadmap-to-2030/ “The West Midlands’ Sustainability Roadmap to 2030 focuses on improving social, economic and environmental indicators across the West Midlands for a more sustainable, fairer and greener region for all.  Building on the previous Roadmap for 2010 – 2020, SWM has consulted with experts, with our members and with hundreds of other stakeholders to ensure that our Roadmap is evidence based and uses the best available data. The eight focus areas cover priority challenges facing the West Midlands and each includes a vision statement and, where possible, a target for 2030. Through cross-sector working across local authority boundaries, we look to create a region with more low carbon jobs, reduced levels of carbon and improved life expectancy.”

Water wars: early warning tool uses climate data to predict conflict hotspots: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/jan/08/water-wars-early-warning-tool-uses-climate-data-to-predict-conflict-hotspots “Researchers from six organisations have developed an early warning system to help predict potential water conflicts as violence associated with water surges globally. The Dutch government-funded Water, Peace and Security (WPS) global early warning tool, which was presented to the UN security council before it was launched formally last month, combines environmental variables such as rainfall and crop failures with political, economic and social factors to predict the risk of violent water-related conflicts up to a year in advance.”

Sir David Attenborough warns of climate 'crisis moment': https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-51123638 “"The moment of crisis has come" in efforts to tackle climate change, Sir David Attenborough has warned. According to the renowned naturalist and broadcaster, "we have been putting things off for year after year". "As I speak, south east Australia is on fire. Why? Because the temperatures of the Earth are increasing," he said. Sir David's comments came in a BBC News interview to launch a year of special coverage on the subject of climate change.”

Terrorism police list Extinction Rebellion as extremist ideology: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/jan/10/xr-extinction-rebellion-listed-extremist-ideology-police-prevent-scheme-guidance “Counter-terrorism police placed the non-violent group Extinction Rebellion (XR) on a list of extremist ideologies that should be reported to the authorities running the Prevent programme, which aims to catch those at risk of committing atrocities, the Guardian has learned.”

The public’s climate change views: strong beliefs but low salience: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/uk-climate-change-views/ “What does the British public think about climate change? Is there strong public pressure on politicians to enact policy to bring down emissions? Drawing on online survey data, Sam Crawley, Hilde Coffé and Ralph Chapman explain that there are five climate change opinion ‘publics’. The two largest publics have strong beliefs that climate change is occurring, but view it as a low salience issue.”

Revealed: US listed climate activist group as ‘extremists’ alongside mass killers: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/13/us-listed-climate-activist-group-extremists “A group of US environmental activists engaged in non-violent civil disobedience targeting the oil industry have been listed in internal Department of Homeland Security documents as “extremists” and some of its members listed alongside white nationalists and mass killers, documents obtained by the Guardian reveal.”

Flybe: Airline and rail rivals attack government rescue: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-51117885 “British Airways' owner IAG has filed a complaint to the EU arguing Flybe's rescue breaches state aid rules. The move comes amid a growing backlash against the government's plan to defer some of Flybe's air passenger duty payments, thought to top £100m. EasyJet and Ryanair said taxpayer funds should not be used to save a rival. Meanwhile, the government's proposal to cut Air Passenger Duty (APD), was attacked by the rail industry's trade body and climate campaign groups.”

Eu Unveils Multi-Billion Euro Plan To Support Regional Energy Transition: https://meta.eeb.org/2020/01/14/eu-unveils-multi-billion-euro-plan-to-support-regional-energy-transition/ “Announced today as part of the European Commission’s Sustainable Investment Plan, the so-called Just Transition Mechanism (JTM) was set up to help Europe reach carbon neutrality by 2050. Over the next 10 years, the Sustainable Investment Plan aims to raise a total €1 trillion to support the energy transition across Europe. In the short and medium term, the €100 billion would be used to provide support to areas and industries that face socio-economic challenges. The plan aims to boost public and private investments in low and zero carbon sectors and create new jobs in regions potentially affected by job losses.”

BlackRock vows tougher stance on climate after activist heat: https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-blackrock-fink-idUKKBN1ZD150 “In his annual letter to CEOs posted on the company’s website on Tuesday, Fink forecast a “fundamental reshaping of finance” and said companies must act or face anger from investors over how unsustainable business practices might curb their future wealth.”

Active travel & transport

NIHR Signal: Twenty mph speed zones reduce the danger to pedestrians and cyclists: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000853/twenty-mph-speed-zones-reduce-the-danger-to-pedestrians-and-cyclists “Children killed on schooldays by rush-hour drivers using urban rat runs close to primary schools, in poor communities, on dark days, were a major concern for public health. Children were at risk on foot or cycling. This review found that zones combining traffic calming and signs warning of a speed restriction reduced death and injury, especially for 'those aged 0 to 15 years'. For drivers to notice the need to change speed, these zones need good lighting and signs well in advance of the restricted area, which might explain why the safety benefits begin in areas adjacent to the 20mph zone.”

Carbon Efficiency of Electric Cars: https://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/carbon-efficiency-of-electric-cars/ “Arguments about which technology is the most energy and carbon efficient over their entire lifetime are good ones to have. This is where the conversation should be focusing, not rehashing questions that are not currently scientifically controversial. But the debate about life cycle efficiency is complex, and often gets abused or misunderstood. We face these questions from biofuels to solar, wind energy, and all-electric vehicles.”

Move More – a whole system approach to physical activity: https://gregfellpublichealth.wordpress.com/2020/01/11/move-more-a-whole-system-approach-to-physical-activity/amp/ “We set out to be the most active City by 2020. The mission and vision are clear, as are the main building blocks are clear. These are set out in our the strategy is here. All of the material is on our website. (It is worth noting that the website is a good website, we have invested in this, this has (surprisingly) been problematic as people often draw a conclusion that Move More is a comms and marketing, and the annual (June) move more month)”

Air quality & pollution

NICE - Indoor air quality at home: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng149 “This guideline covers indoor air quality in residential buildings. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of good air quality in people's homes and how to achieve this.”

Air pollution from brake dust may be as harmful as diesel exhaust on immune cells – new study: https://theconversation.com/air-pollution-from-brake-dust-may-be-as-harmful-as-diesel-exhaust-on-immune-cells-new-study-129594 “Composed of iron particles, brake dust is caused by friction between the iron brake rotor grinding on the brake pads when a vehicle slows down. This brake dust is then worn away and becomes airborne. And as recent research conducted by me and my colleagues found, brake dust triggers inflammation in the lung cells with the same severity as diesel particles.”

UK citizens legal right to clean air could be ‘cast aside’ after Brexit: http://airqualitynews.com/2020/01/09/uk-citizens-right-to-clean-air-could-be-cast-aside-after-brexit/ “A change to the Withdrawal Agreement Bill means that UK citizens legal right to breathe clean air could be ‘cast aside’ after Brexit. Whilst the UK will automatically retain EU environmental laws when it leaves the European Union, a clause has been added to section 26 of the bill that means any UK court or tribunal will be able to overrule case law from the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU).”

The downstream air pollution impacts of the transition from coal to natural gas in the United States: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-019-0453-5.epdf “Between 2005 and 2016 in the continental United States, decommissioning of a coal-fired unit was associated with reduced nearby pollution concentrations and subsequent reductions in mortality and increases in crop yield. In total during this period, the shutdown of coal-fired units saved an estimated 26,610 (5%–95% confidence intervals (CI), 2,725–49,680) lives and 570 million (249–878 million) bushels of corn, soybeans and wheat in their immediate vicinities; these estimates increase when pollution transport-related spillovers are included. Changes in primary and secondary aerosol burdens also altered regional atmospheric reflectivity, raising the average top of atmosphere instantaneous radiative forcing by 0.50 W m−2. Although there are considerable benefits of decommissioning older coal-fired units, the newer natural gas and coal-fired units that have supplanted them are not entirely benign.”

Plastic packaging ban 'could harm environment': https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-51040155 “Consumer pressure to end plastic packaging in shops could actually be harming the environment, a report says. Firms are swapping to other packaging materials which are potentially even worse for the environment, the cross-party Parliamentary group warns. Glass bottles, for instance, are much heavier than plastic so are far more polluting to transport. Paper bags tend to have higher carbon emissions than plastic bags – and are more difficult to re-use.”

Why your reusable coffee cup may be no better than a disposable: https://theconversation.com/why-your-reusable-coffee-cup-may-be-no-better-than-a-disposable-120949 “Is any item more symbolic of our modern, disposable culture than the single-use coffee cup? In March 2016, they were vilified in celebrity chef Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall’s “War on Waste” campaign, when he drove a bus through London covered in 10,000 coffee cups: the number the UK allegedly uses every two minutes.”

The missing 99%: why can't we find the vast majority of ocean plastic? https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/dec/31/ocean-plastic-we-cant-see “...But for at least a decade, the biggest question among scientists who study marine plastic hasn’t been why plastic in the ocean is so abundant, but why it isn’t. What scientists can see and measure, in the garbage patches and on beaches, accounts for only a tiny fraction of the total plastic entering the water. So where is the other 99% of ocean plastic? Unsettling answers have recently begun to emerge… Perhaps most frighteningly, says Helge Niemann, a biogeochemist at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, it could fragment into such small pieces that it can barely be detected. At this point it becomes, Niemann says, “more like a chemical dissolved in the water than floating in it”.”

edie launches best-practice guide for businesses tackling single-use plastics: https://www.edie.net/news/5/edie-launches-best-practice-guide-for-businesses-tackling-single-use-plastics/ “Launched on Wednesday (15 January) the 22-page report outlines existing case studies from businesses alongside practical steps on how to turn the tide on single-use plastics. The report features a foreword from WRAP’s director Peter Maddox, who claims: “There are many more plastic items that we urgently need to examine in order to remove plastic packaging where it is not deemed necessary, and, when it is necessary, to ensure this packaging is recyclable or reusable and goes back into the economic use.”

Food & food security

Shifts in national land use and food production in Great Britain after a climate tipping point: https://www.nature.com/articles/s43016-019-0011-3 “We show that economic and land-use impacts of such a tipping point are likely to include widespread cessation of arable farming with losses of agricultural output that are an order of magnitude larger than the impacts of climate change without an AMOC collapse. The agricultural effects of AMOC collapse could be ameliorated by technological adaptations such as widespread irrigation, but the amount of water required and the costs appear to be prohibitive in this instance.”

Food security plan after Brexit: biggest shake-up to farming in 40 years: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/jan/16/food-security-brexit-biggest-shake-uk-farming-40-years-agriculture-bill “The UK’s food security is to be regularly assessed by parliament to ensure minimal disruption to supplies after the country leaves the EU and while new trade deals are sought. The commitment will be part of the biggest shakeup of British agriculture in 40 years and requires a regular report to MPs outlining supply sources and household expenditure on food, as well as consumer confidence in food safety. The move reflects concerns over potential disruptions post-Brexit, as more than a quarter of Britain’s food comes from the EU and nearly a fifth from other countries.”

Meat isn’t always the biggest driver of dietary carbon emissions: http://www.anthropocenemagazine.org/2020/01/sugar-and-alcohol-the-highest-dietary-emissions-dont-always-come-from-meat/ “In global diets, meat is not necessarily the main driver of dietary carbon emissions, finds a new study published in One Earth. Instead, factors like higher sugar and alcohol consumption, and dining out more frequently, could be an unrecognised source of carbon emissions in modern diets.”

Ethical veganism is a belief protected by law, tribunal rules: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2020/jan/03/ethical-veganism-is-a-belief-protected-by-law-tribunal-rules “An employment tribunal has ruled that ethical veganism is a philosophical belief that is protected by law against discrimination.”

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